chris, these are headed in the right direction but need a lot of refinement. the most effective one so far is the "drillin killin spillin since 1891" with the ice photo. i say that because the text message is the most potent and clever and the type/image relationship is the most interesting. that composition is still mucked up a bit with the buttons and your sign kind of stuck on the side there. you have plenty of vertical room to sequence the message in a more dramatic fashion. check with your classmates about that discussion from monday. in a nutshell, think of utilizing scrolling as a way to force a sequential (syntagmatic) view of your message, similar to motion graphics syntax . the last two start with a dramatic plea but have no solid supporting image. your sign isn't used to its full potential in that layout. then you follow up with a logical message (the stat) but i have no point of reference for that number. it certainly sounds huge, but give me some context or comparison for that number so i understand it better. also "spilled" is the proper spelling, not "spilt". those last two are a decent example of the concept of mixing pathos and logos. now consider how to add in a touch of ethos to the message. your final project has to show all three appeals somehow. your first idea has a powerful message but the type is pretty uninspired and yelling at me in a robotic way (linguistically and formally). i'd rather be yelled at by martin luther king or malcolm X than by a robot. but in terms of that vertical syntax, this is working well. no on the earth idea.the string of facts sounds like you quite possibly made that up, partly because you switch to what sounds like your opinion (having oil reserves here is pointless) and partly because you give me no real reason to believe your argument. how can you project a sense of authority or expertise when you say these things? right now i'd say the ice idea and maybe the last idea (pathos/logos mix) are the strongest, and maybe the top one if you work out the type. but any final work needs to have all three appeals in some form or fashion. i recommend considering a hierarchy of appeals. ex: pathos as the main/first appeal, then follow up with some logos and finish off with ethos somehow. or whatever.develop at least two semi-finals for wednesday. see you then!