semiotics - the study and interpretation of signs and symbolism. How we view and react to those symbols.
sign - Signs are something that describes something else or something that might happen, such as road signs. They tell a person something else other than the actual sign itself.
signifier -The physical and actual object of a sign, it takes the form of the sign.
signified - The concept that a signifier denotes.
icon - It is the real resemblance of an object. A representation of something that can be recognized.
index - An index is something that we use to connect another thing. It helps us figure out information by linking signs and objects.
symbol - We recognize what the symbol is and immediately apply it to whatever it means. For example a yellow silhouette of a deer usually makes people think of John Deere. This symbol must be learned but the connection is arbitrary, it is only because of repetition, or cultural references that a symbol means something.
syntagm - a combination of linguistic units in a certain order to convey a certain meaning, within relationship to each unit.
paradigm - a typical pattern or model of something. A set of linguistic items that form mutually exclusive choices in particular syntactic roles.
code - A code can be a combination of symbols, letters, numbers, etc. Most commonly used to convey a message. In a technological sense it can make up codes for computers, passwords, actual coding for programs, and the list goes on.
polysemy - a word or meaning that can have multiple meanings.